Academics advise how to keep data secure in a cyber-world

Cyber security experts from the University of Bristol have advised the European Union Agency for Network and Information Security (ENISA) on how to protect the personal data of millions of citizens.

Two reports, edited by Professor Nigel Smart, Professor of Cryptology, have been published by ENISA.

The reports give guidance to corporations, member states, and the wider community about current best scientific practice in the rapidly advancing field of cryptography.

The first report provides a set of proposals in an easy to use form, with a focus on commercial online services that collect, store and process the personal data of EU citizens.

The second report focuses on the current status in cryptographic protocols and encourages further research. A quick overview is presented on protocols which are used in relatively restricted application areas, such as wireless, mobile communications or banking (Bluetooth, WPA/WEP, UMTS/LTE, ZigBee, EMV) and specific environments focusing on Cloud computing.

The reports, which also had input from a number of members from the Cryptography Research group in the Department of Computer Science, provide an update to the 2013 cryptographic guidelines report on security measures required to protect personal data in online systems.

Professor Smart said: “It was a joy to work with ENISA once again on the 2014 reports. We received a lot of positive responses from various stakeholders related to last year’s report, and we hope the new reports will have a similar impact.”

http://phys.org/news/2014-11-academics-cyber-world.html

Notes from the ENISA documents

Privacy and cryptography

Cryptography is an essential technical means to provide privacy and privacy-related services. Gürses defines three privacy paradigms: confidentiality, control and practice [6].

  1. In the first paradigm, privacy is ensured by keeping personal data confidential i.e. protecting it so that unauthorised people can’t access or modify it. This definition of privacy is clearly and strongly linked to classical cryptographic schemes: electronic data secure can be kept secure by using strong cryptography (and strong keys).
  2. The second paradigm, which is more common in legal texts, adds the ability to control what happens with personal data. This is also called the right to informational self-determination. In this definition, several advanced cryptographic schemes can play an important role, e.g. techniques to reduce the amount of personal data that is released to the strictly required minimum. We discuss briefly some of these cryptographic techniques in the appendix.
  3. The third paradigm defines privacy as transparency on the ways in which information is collected, aggregated and used. Cryptography plays here a much less visible role, but it is still present underneath as the method to enforce the policies formulated with respect to the treatment of personal data.
Security Requirements

Data protection is often described as a process based on three pillars: Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability (CIA). Although these three requirements are definitely very important, the problem of information security has more dimensions than those three.

Forward confidentiality

This property is a stronger form of confidentiality. It is applicable to systems that have a key architecture where keys with a long lifetime (long-term keys) are used to construct keys with a short lifetime (short-term keys), and all data is encrypted with the short-term keys. The concept forward security is defined as follows [9, 10]:

A protocol is said to have perfect forward secrecy if compromise of long-term keys does not compromise past session keys.

Algorithms, Key Size and Parameters

Primitives (basic cryptographic building blocks)

Figure 2.1: Just some of the design space for instantiating the ECIES public key encryption algorithm. Note, that not all standards documents will support all of these options. To read this diagram: A group of arrows starting with a circle implies the implementer needs to choose one of the resulting paths. A set of three arrows implies a part of the decision tree which we have removed due to space. In addition (again for reasons of space) we do not list all possible choices, e.g. some hash functions can be block cipher based. Even with these restrictions one can see the design space for a cipher as well studied and understood as ECIES can be quite complex.

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